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Factors Affecting the Color Fastness to Wet Friction of Textiles and Improving Measures
Rotary friction color fastness meter
Factors affecting the color fastness to wet friction of textiles:
Some dyes with good water solubility, such as reactive dyes, contain groups with excellent water solubility, which are conducive to the dissolution and dyeing of dyes in the dyeing process. However, during the wet friction test, due to the presence of water, the reactive dye molecules tend to detach from the fibers and dissolve in water, thereby reducing the bond between the reactive dye and the fibers. However, some poorly water-soluble dyes, such as vat dyes, are generally pad-dyed mechanically on the fibers in a suspension state during continuous pad dyeing. After reduction and steaming, the dyes become water-soluble dye leuco dyes. Inside the fiber, it is then oxidized and soap-cooked to be fixed on the fiber. At this point, the reducing dye molecules return to the water-insoluble state. Therefore, fabrics dyed with vat dyes are superior to dyed fabrics dyed with reactive dyes because of their water-insoluble properties.
2.Color depth (dye concentration)
Under the same conditions of fabric, pretreatment and dyeing process, the darker the color and the higher the dye concentration, the greater the gradient of the dye molecule concentration between the test fabric and the rubbing white cloth, the greater the possibility of the dye transferring to the white cloth by friction. The worse the wet rubbing fastness.
3, the impact of floating colors
Floating colors include dyes that have been hydrolyzed and dyes that have not hydrolyzed but have reacted with the fiber. These dyes are attracted to the fiber by hydrogen bonding, van der Waals force, and have a low affinity with the fiber, and can be easily detached from the fabric when subjected to a small external force. So floating color is an important factor that affects the fabric's wet rubbing fastness.
4, the impact of water quality
If harder water is used to chemically change the material, especially the color fixing solution, because it contains anions such as CO32- and OH-, they react with Ca2 + and Mg2 + to form insoluble substances such as Ca2CO3 and MgCO3. These insoluble substances are combined with dyes to form lakes and deposit on the surface of the fabric, which greatly increases the frictional force during friction, thereby reducing the wet rubbing fastness. In addition, Ca2 + and Mg2 + can also react with some anions on the dye molecules to transform into water-insoluble substances, thereby weakening the hydrophilicity of the dye, making the dye difficult to dissolve and diffuse, and the floating color is not easy to wash off when washed.
5.Fabric structure and surface finish
The structure of the fabric affects the smoothness of the surface of the fabric, and the smoothness determines the amount of friction force during the friction test and affects the rubbing fastness.
Another important factor affecting the fastness to wet rubbing of a fabric is the surface finish of the fabric. The fiber ends are exposed on the surface of the yarn, forming a layer of fluff on the surface of the fabric. During the process of dyeing and finishing, this layer of hairs is constantly subjected to friction, washing, and the adhesion to the fabric is already very poor. When external forces are applied, some short hairs will leave the fabric and stain the white cloth. In actual production, the rubbing fastness of rubbed cloth is worse than that of mercerized cloth by 0.5 to 1 grade.